Phoebus \pho(e)-bus\ as a boy's name is of Greek origin, and the meaning of Phoebus is "bright, radiant". The sun god Apollo was also known as Phoebus Apollo, referring to the fact that he brought light. The feminine version Phoebe is more common, possibly because it is also a biblical name.
Phoebus has 1 variant form: Phoibos.
For more information, see also the related name Feivel.